The Galactic Republic, simply known as the Republic, or—as a reference to its longevity—the Old Republic, was the name of a legislative governmental body created in 25,000 BBY. It used unicameral legislation to create and enforce laws. The body was made up of a Supreme Chancellor and a group of Senators that represented thousands of sectors. Three branches comprised the galactic government: the Executive, Legislative and Judicial Branch. All three branches had checks against the others to prevent one branch from rising above the others in power. The Republic went through three periods of reorganization: 1,000 BBY, 17 BBY and 8 BBY.
The Republic was formed after the Unification Wars which resulted from the power vacuum left by the Infinite Empire. The initial members of the Republic were Core Worlds and Colonies, however, it slowly expanded rimward over the next twenty-five millennia. The Republic suffered many conflicts over the course of its reign, including many between the Jedi Order and the Dark Crusaders, a former entity of the Jedi. The Republic chose to disband its military under the orders of Supreme Chancellor Tarsus Valorum in 1,000 BBY, as part of the Ruusan Reformations. It was initiated with the belief that it would reduce the prevalence of conflict endured by the galaxy and to promote the government's belief in peaceful resolutions.
From the genesis of time, the Galaxy has sought the very fabric of our society. They have always wanted peace and freedom. Twenty-five millennia ago, our ancestors achieved that goal. They snatched it from the greedy grasp of the Infinite people and spread it around for everyone. We aim to continue that tradition.
The Republic was created once the Galactic Constitution was signed in 25,053 BBY, after the Unification Wars. During that time, the Humans and Duros reverse-engineered the Force-based technologies of the Rakata, which resulted in the invention of the hyperdrive, which allowed Coruscant to become the capital of the Galactic Republic fifty-three years later and would remain that way for twenty-five thousand years.
Shortly after the formation of the Republic, the Perlemian Trade Route was mapped, which linked Coruscant to Rhen Var, and eventually Chandor Prime. Over the next millennia, the Corellian Run mapped Coruscant to Corellia and beyond. The wedge was an astronomical region defined by the two trade routes, it was colloquially called "the Slice." Since the stretch of space west of Coruscant was anomaly-ridden and impassible for then-current Republic technology, the government expanded rimward,into the Colonies. The Core Worlds' portion of the Slice was known as the Arrowhead.
At first, the federal government wished for slow expansion in spite of its promotion of hyperspace exploration. However, against the government's wishes, the membership of the Republic boomed for its first millennium of existence, mainly due to worlds that wanted to join as protection against the Hutt Empire; a sector of space rimward of Coruscant, near the Mid and Outer Rims, that was controlled by the slaver Hutt clans.
In 24,000 BBY, the Republic declared war against the Honorable Union of Desevro & Tion, a state that appeared after the destruction of Xim the Despot's Empire. The war traveled up and down the Perlemian Trade Route and the respective capitals of Coruscant and Desevro. The Republic eventually won the war when they got the Hutts to attack the Tionese. Within a century, most of the Tion Cluster–a cluster of stars in the Outer Rim that contained six hundred inhabited worlds–swore allegiance to Coruscant, with the exception of Desevro.
During the Great Manifest Period of 20,000 BBY–17,000 BBY, the Republic expanded rimward across the galaxy. Despite this expansion, the Slice would remain the center of navigable space. Eventually, the Republic expanded past the northern and southern borders of the Slice, although most of the galaxy would remain uncharted in those areas. The space west of Coruscant remained unexplored mostly because analogues to the Perlemian Trade Route and the Corellian Run, in that direction, still had not been discovered. Progress to the west was limited to one or two-light-year jumps into a stretch of hyperspatial anomalies.
Also during the period, the Expansion Region was formed. The Expansion Region was a large band of space colonized toward the rim, after the Slice. However, this region suffered greatly as a result of the Alsakan, a powerful Core World rival of the Republic capital planet Coruscant, attempts to snatch much of the area from the Coruscant, who had commenced massive colonization efforts. This resulted in seventeen Alsakan Conflicts, spanning from 17,000 BBY to 3,000 BBY. Most of the fighting took place between each other's holdings in the Expansion Region, rather than in the Core itself. In spite of their efforts, the Alsakan lost every one of the seventeen total conflicts versus Coruscant.
Around 12,000 BBY, Contispex became Supreme Chancellor. He and his descendants belonged to the theocratic Pius Dea cult that would control the Republic for the next 1,000 years. These Supreme Chancellors sanctioned "crusades" against rival alien sects. After 11,000 BBY the cult dissolved. The tensions from the fallout of the crusades would deepen the rifts between the Core Worlds and those of the Rim, which would help the Barbarians foster unrest and, eventually, the Great Galactic War.
Approximately 9,000 BBY, Blotus the Hutt became Supreme Chancellor and ruled the Galactic Republic for 275 years during the Rianitus Period. Unlike most other Hutts, Blotus was considered a distinguished and just ruler, which allowed for his prodigious length of service as Supreme Chancellor. Blotus fostered an amicable relationship with Hutt Space due to its heritage, although the relationship did not bring the membership of Hutt Space because the Hutt Council felt the relations between the two would falter after Blotus' reign. By 7,308 BBY, the Galactic Standard Calendar–the official calendar the Republic governed by and the official calendar for all Republic member systems–had been adjusted.
In 5,000 BBY, the Jedi Order and the Dark Crusaders–a religious organization dedicated to using the dark side of the Force–clashed in the Great Hyperspace War. The Jedi were able to repulse the invaders. After that, the Republic granted the Jedi land over a Force nexus–a sacred mountain imbued in Force energy–on Coruscant.
Old Crusader Wars
Who I am is not important, my message is.
Following those conflicts were those of the Old Crusader Wars of c.4,000 BBY which almost destroyed the Republic. During the Great Crusader War (4,000 BBY–3,996 BBY), Exar Kun and Ulic Qel-Droma, along with their Krath and Mandalorian allies, waged war on the Republic, causing devastation until they were defeated by the combined Jedi and Republic forces. Afterward, the Great Hunt, an event that tried to eliminate all Crusaders and their followers, (3,995–3,993 BBY) occurred.
These would be followed by the Mandalorian Wars (3,966—3,960 BBY). They were fought between Mandalorian forces hoping to expand their colonies beyond the Outer Rim Territories and the Galactic Republic, which feared further incursions. The Mandalorian Wars were a prelude to the more devastating Jedi Civil War (3,959 BBY–3,956 BBY). The Jedi Civil War was fought between the Republic and the Crusader Empire under Darths Revan and Malak. It was possibly the most destructive conflict of that entire era, with many worlds being devastated by the Crusader fleet.
In 3,900 BBY, Queen Elsinore den Tasia of the Core World of Grizmallt sponsored an expansion fleet of three vessels—Beneficent Tasia, Constant, and Mother Vima. This fleet was led by the Republic explorer Kwilaan, and would discover the planet Naboo.
In 3,681 BBY, the Crusader Empire returned to wage war against the Republic in the Galactic War. The War greatly weakened the Republic, the sacking of Coruscant devastated the city-planet and damaged the Jedi Temple. However, the Jedi were able to repel the invaders off-world and end the war. The government had to spend much of its surplus on repairing Coruscant and other affected worlds. This led to a mini-depression that lasted for much of the following Cold War, a peaceful standoff between the recovering Crusader forces and the rebuilding Republic.
In 3,000 BBY, the 17th Alsakan Conflict ended with the final defeat of Alsakan. Also, the pioneer woman and Brentaal native Freia Kallea discovered the Hydian Way, a hyperspace route which spanned the entire north-south width of the galaxy. This allowed the Republic to expand past the Slice and into the worlds of the Mid and Outer Rims, and also led to the discovery of more hyperspace routes, including the Corellian Trade Spine, thus starting the Second Expansion Wave.
New Crusader Wars
Sacrifice is the ultimate cost, the ultimate price. It deserves the highest of honors in our society and shall it be interwoven in the legends of our society. Lord Hoth will forever be known for laying down so costly a sacrifice upon the altar of freedom.
—Supreme Chancellor Tarsus Valorum during his famous Armistice Address c.1,000 BBY
The New Crusader Wars was a conflict between the Jedi Order and the Dark Crusaders. The war lasted one thousand years, with a large portion of it taking place on the planet Ruusan. The war's final century was called the First Dark Age. The war concluded with a victory for the Jedi Order and the total annihilation of the Crusaders, according to Galactic Republic historians. The victory for the Jedi came after Lord Hoth, a Jedi military leader, sacrificed himself to destroy nearly all the Dark Crusaders. He hoped by causing Lord Kaan, the Crusader counterpart, to activate his thought bomb, it would devastate all his remaining Crusader Forces. The plan succeeded, but cost Hoth his life.
Ruusan Reformation & chancellor reduction
The old maxim Matching violence with violence has obviously never been more wrong. We need to practice what we preach and treat animosity with love. Only then, will we achieve our ultimate goal. Seek out your enemies and shower them with love. It will only be a matter of time before our peaceful utopia is a reality. Let the Ruusan Reformations commence!
After the Ruusan Reformations, the Chancery was greatly reduced by the then-incumbent Chancellor, Tarsus Valorum. He reasoned that the decentralization of Republic government and the retirement of all standing military organizations would be beneficial to the preservation of the Republic, which had just seen a millennium-long war. He also moved the Jedi Order to the Judiciary's jurisdiction, with approval of the Senate. Valorum hoped to reunify the rotting Republic and bring about peace. The decentralizing of the Republic's sectoral power was created to balance sector power, shrink the total amount of sectors and reduce bureaucratic problems. Corporation and species representation became official and allowed those representatives to run for Chancellor. The Republic funneled power that the Chancellor held back into the Senate and disbanded all army and navy operations. The Senate was reorganized to prevent corruption and stagnation.
The war had many ramifications for the galaxy. The Crusaders, led by their lone survivor of the war, Killick Orslan, went into hiding and instituted the Rule of Two. It stated that Killick's newly dubbed Sith would remain in hiding while they built their non-Force-enhanced army. The Sith would have two members at all times, but did not restrict the use of Dark Jedi.
The Jedi Order retired the use of armor and their ranks as Generals. They also disbanded their fighter corps. The Order lowered its maximum training age and restricted the number of Padawan that a Jedi Knight and Jedi Master was allowed to have at one time. The Order shut down its academies and placed itself under the power of the Senate and consequently the Judiciary.
Prosperity has never looked so fashionable.
—Unknown Supreme Chancellor
The Republic went through what historians dubbed a Modern Era. The Modern Era was described as the time period after the Reformations that saw little in the way of conflict and massive growth and development. The era was known as a time of peace, expansion and technological advancement. From 1,000 BBY to 17 BBY there were no wars or diseases that wiped out vast expanses of Republic-known territory and saw the Republic claim its last territories in the Outer Rim, albeit with little true power in the region.
Peace was associated with evolved behavior—the upper class saw war as a backward and barbaric practice—but technological advancement was the true culprit behind the "modern" era. Among the many items created, rechargeable jetpacks that utilized cellular-energy technology was invented during the Modern Era. Cloud cars that used steam-powered, turbine-engines were created to prevent volatile gases from being ignited by the engine wash. Hyperspace rings were invented to allow for small spacecraft travel, previously hyperspace hyperdrives were confined to craft no smaller than light freighters. The Z-95 Headhunter spacecraft was one of the first personal spaceships to utilize a hyperspace hyperdrive inside the craft, because of the previous limitations of hyperdrive size.
Technological achievements continued to shine in the forefront of the galaxy's limelight until 23 BBY. The Coo-Neo Crisis made headlines as the first major attack on the Jedi and—because of their ties—the Republic since the creation of the Ruusan Reformations. Due to the lack of an active military, the Republic had to dispatch Jedi Knights and the Republic Defense Space Force to handle the affair.
The crisis sparked a war between the Republic and the, public described, degenerates of society: criminals, pirates, murderers, etc. The war between the Republic and the formally-named Barbarians was further aggravated with the appearance of a Dark Crusader nearly two years into the conflict.
Nearly six years into the war, the Galactic Republic suffered a major blow to their stability and sustainability, after a device, code-named Saladeen's Ring, devastated the surfaces of Christophsis—a test run—and Manaan. The Republic was forced to shrink its borders considerably in order to strengthen its defense against further attack. This defensive policy was in place until 8 BBY.
The Republic was created from chaos...darkness...fear. It brought order and illumination to the primitive peoples of the galaxy and will continue to do so under my watch.
The executive branch of the Galactic Republic consisted of one position, the Supreme Chancellor. The Supreme Chancellor was the only official position, as the Vice Chairman and the Staff Aide were considered part of the Legislative Branch. The Supreme Chancellor was appointed via nomination and election by their peers in the Senate. The Chancellor could not be determined by a general election of the Republic's citizens. The position was created during the birth of the Republic circa 25,000 BBY, to be the Senate floor leader and lead diplomat for the Galactic Republic. The position held increasing power until the Ruusan Reformations, which shunted power back into the Legislative Branch and reduced the Chancellor to an advisory-like position. Regardless, the position was still considered very prestigious by the Senators that ran the government. The nominations had to come from within the Senate or, in rare occasions, from the Jedi Order. No citizen from the public nor from the Judiciary could have been nominated. Therefore, all but the most powerful corporate owners (which have Senate seats) were ineligible and no corporate owner that was not a part of the Republic could be nominated.
In the early days of the Republic, the Chancellor held much more power than during the later years of its reign. The Chancellor held enough power to declare war and to introduce bills onto the Senate floor. The Chancellor had the power to waive the two-term, ten year seat of office limit imposed by the Galactic Constitution, the founding document that established the laws and regulations that the government had to abide by and enforce, and the rights of the citizens. They were allowed to overrule local planetary and sectoral governments. The Chancellor, however, did not have the power to abolish the Senate nor could they gain direct control of the Jedi Order, a religious order and peacekeeping organization. The Chancellor was not allowed to appoint governors to oversee entire regions or sectors during the early days of the Republic.
The office was largely powerless after the Ruusan Reformations, in 1,000 BBY, an official series of meetings that determined the future power of the government and the Jedi Order's power. The Chancellor could carry out parliamentary procedure and was considered the first among equals in the Senate. However, it had the authority to call an Extraordinary Session of the Senate, and could invoke "Chancellor's Privilege" in circumventing minor aspects of the Senate's parliamentary procedure. He or she also was the head of the Senatorial Council, or governing body.
Despite the Chancellor's limited power, it was considered highest and most prestigious position in the Senate. It included a grand office in both the Senate Rotunda's Chancellery and in the dome-like Senate Office Building in Galactic City. The Chancellor was addressed as "Your Excellency", or if allowed, "Chancellor". The symbol of the office of the Chancellor, as well as the Galactic Senate, was a fanned spear. This sigil was emblazoned prominently on the Chancellor's podium in the center of the Senate Rotunda's Main Chamber. The Chancellor served a term of office that lasted for five standard years. A Chancellor legally served only two consecutive five-year terms before he or she had to step down due to term limits. This could not be waived after the Reformations. The Chancellor had the authority to recognize or ignore Senators that requested to speak. If the Senator was denied, they could not express their opinion or offer an objection to a recognized senator's opinion.
Checks & balances
There were very few checks in place to stop the Chancellor during the first twenty-four thousand years of the Republic's existence. Many of the checks the founders had put in place had the chance to be overridden by the Chancellor. Some of the few balances that remained in effect despite the Executive Office's power was the ability to keep control of the Jedi Order under the Senate, the ability to keep the Senate intact, thus preventing any dissolution efforts, and the prohibition of regional governors to keep watch on dissident and loyal systems. A check that was implemented by the Senate was the two-term limit, even if the Chancellor chose to override the limit, the Senate almost always chose to elect the opposing candidate or a Senator from a group of nominations.
After the Ruusan Reformations, the Chancery was greatly reduced by, Tarsus Valorum, the incumbent Chancellor at the time. He reasoned that the decentralization of Republic government and the retirement of all standing military organizations would be beneficial to the preservation of the Republic, which had just seen a millennium-long war. He also moved the Jedi Order under the Judiciary's jurisdiction, with approval from the Senate. Due to the removal of the Jedi Order from the Senate and the dissolution of the military, the Chancellor formally retired the position's rank as Supreme Commander of the Republic Forces. The decentralization of the Republic's sectoral power was created to balance sector power, shrink the total amount of sectors and reduce bureaucratic problems. This strengthened the power of each individual Senator and reduced the power of the executive office. The Senate had the power to strike down resolutions by the Chancellor, gave them the ability to enact a "Vote of No Confidence" to unseat the incumbent Chancellor and allowed them to introduce a bill that prevented the Chancellor from placing bills on to the Senate floor for discussion and approval. The Senate leader was forced to go through Senate channels to introduce bills for him.
The Republic is a bastion of hope. It brings promise and light to the masses of the galaxy. We must do our best to ensure that the beings in the government, in the Senate, continue business as usual.
—Mason Quarrell discussing the importance of the Republic with his Jedi peers
The Legislative Branch contained the Galactic Senate, Vice Chair and Staff Aide. The main body of the Senate was composed of the founding systems in the Core Worlds and the Colonies c. 25,000 BBY, when the Republic was founded. The number of Senators present on the Legislative Branch continually rose until the bureaucracy gridlocked the government too much to be effective. Once that happened, the territory which the Senator represented was increased and many of the individual senators were absorbed. After the inclusion of the Inner Rim through the Outer Rim, the Senate became so bloated and corrupt that the Chancellor was forced to rely on themselves to get policies and laws enacted, for fear that introducing it to the floor would kill the approval of the bill. The Senate would become increasingly corrupt as Senators sold their voting power to powerful corporations or to less powerful sectors to get their voice heard and recognized by the powerful Chancellor.
By 1,000 BBY, the Chancellor relinquished his power after decentralizing voting power among sectors, minus a few powerful sectors in the Core that retained individual voting rights. The reduction of Senate seats and the addition of power to the Senate was meant to lower corruption by giving senators near equal voting power and stop gridlock among the delegates. Instead corporations, which now had legal representation, bought up the poorer sector's votes for more power and fostered gridlock by paying senators to oppose proposed bills that negatively affected their business.
Vice Chair- also known as the Speaker of the Senate, was considered part of the legislative branch because it contained no direct ties to the Chancellor and did not serve similar term limits. The Vice Chair, also, could not be appointed and replaced after every new Chancellor-elect took office. The Vice Chair served a life-term that could only end when they died, resigned or the Senate declared them unfit to continue. During ties, they could express their opinion to break the tie, something not granted to the Chancellor after 1,000 BBY. This ability further cemented their position as a legislative member and not an executive member. They were seen by the Senate, as the most powerful Senator in the Legislative Branch, second in authority to the Chancellor, but with a lack of voting power.
The Vice Chair had the authority to formally open and close Senate Sessions, initiate and terminate debates, moderate discussion, call Senators to hearings and sessions, enforce procedures and discipline procedure breakers. They served at the right-hand side of the Chancellor on the Chancellor's podium during sessions.
Staff Aide- Staff Aide served an indefinite term, like the Vice Chair. Unlike the Vice Chair, the Staff Aide usually retired or resigned from the position once a new Chancellor was elected. This allowed the Chancellor to select someone of their choice, rather than keep the previous Chancellor's aide. The position was considered part of the Senate because the Chancellor usually selected theirs from an incumbent Senator. Many Senators vied for the position because the representative held their spot in the Senate indefinitely, or until they returned to Senate service. This meant that they could avoid elections and thus possible loss of office as a result. The position also was sought after because they were the Chancellor's "voice" during sessions that the chief officer could not be present for. Though the aide could not vote, much like the Chancellor, this could serve as a medium to express their views. In case of incapacitation or death, the Aide would replace the Chancellor. This law remained active until the reformations, which called for a whole new election if the Chancellor was unfit for office or dead. The Staff Aide was present for Senate sessions aboard the Chancellor's podium with the Vice Chair and Chancellor.
When the Republic was founded in 25,000 BBY, the founding fathers established the government with the intention of funneling much of the power to the Senate and Judiciary. Their plans failed to an extent. Power was given to the Senate, but the founders placed too much power in the Chancery. The Chancellor had the power to void or go over many of the Senate's powers with the exception of its unalienable rights, its right to exist, to govern the Republic without governors and power of police forces (police was used in place of military to avoid belligerent connotations).
After the Ruusan Reformations, the Senate could override nearly every action the Chancellor made, with exception to Chancellor's Privilege and certain executive rights and orders. The Senate remained in control of legislation and any military action, and had power to overrule local or sector governments. They were allowed to negotiate and create treaties with government entities outside of the Republic and developed foreign policy that Republic member worlds had to abide by. They abolished the position of Supreme Commander, instead employing a joint effort that involved all the Senators to maintain the war effort and strategy. The Senate could apply the "Vote of No Confidence" clause that was placed in the Galactic Constitution to counter the Chancellor. Due to overpowering the executive branch, the Senate could not enact the clause until the reformations granted them more power. The Constitution had a hidden order named Order 65; this order allowed the Senate to apprehend or kill the Chancellor if they saw him unfit for duty. This Order supersedes the Impeachment Process which forces a trial that involves the Senate as Jury and the Courts as Judges. Orders 4 and 5 dealt with Chancery succession if the Order 65 contingency was issued. The Senate had the power to regulate the economy and they were the only branch of government that could have initiated appropriation, revenue, bills.
The early Senate was held in check by the Chancery. The chancellor had the power to override or stop any senatorial decree or motion. An unplanned check was that of the Senate itself. The bureaucracy and gridlock that they created, in order to gain the upper hand on others, made them virtually impotent in session. The Judiciary had the power to strike down any motion they passed, if the Judiciary deemed it "unconstitutional" via Judicial review. The Senate could also be checked by the Chancellor in regards to passed bills. Once the bill has been passed by the legislative branch, the Chancellor had the right to veto bills, or pocket veto, a veto that gave the Chancellor authority to kill a bill without it going back for a re-vote, depending on the time the bill got to his desk. If the bill was vetoed (not pocket vetoed), the bill returned to the Senate floor, where it required a majority (3/4) vote to pass the bill into law. Also, the Chancellor may utilize line-item veto; this veto allowed the Chancellor to ignore certain parts of the motion, but maintain the legitimacy of other parts. The motion then reverted back to the Senate, upon which they voted to determine its legality.
Millennia ago, we swore an oath to serve under the fine beings of the Judiciary. They interpret the legality of laws and dole out justice for our fair Republic and we enforce it. Simple enough.
—Pup Kickto addressing the query of a colleague.
The Supreme Court was the highest court of law in the Republic and was considered the third branch of the government. The Court was composed of eleven justices, each addressed as "Your Honor". One of the eleven justices was given the Chief Justice position. The Chief Justice was the head of the Supreme Court and the Judicial Branch. Justices had life tenures, which terminated only upon death, resignation, retirement, or conviction on impeachment.
The position could only be filled by a certain procedure. The protocol allowed the Chancellor to nominate a justice from a lower court, but the justice could not take office until the Senate approved. If the Senate rejected the nomination, the justice was ineligible to take their seat on the Supreme Court and a new nomination had to be presented. This Senatorial power could not be censored by the Chancery. The court met in the Galactic Courts of Justice Building on Coruscant. The Supreme Court, the only court included in the federal government, was an appellate court–or a court that would hear a trial that had been decided and appealed–as well as the Constitutional Court.
A constitutional court had the power to interpret the Galactic Constitution and determine if something was unconstitutional or not. The Supreme Court also heard original jurisdiction cases, or a court that had the right to hear a case for the first time (opposite of appellate). Original jurisdiction cases usually dealt with high profile figures or members of the Senate or Executive Branch that had been charged with political crimes (i.e. treason, war crimes, corruption, conspiracy, embezzlement, extortion, etc). They did not determine cases presented against Senators or Chancellor if it did not deal with the political realm (i.e. shoplifting, burglary, kidnapping, mayhem, rioting, etc).
The courts had the power to construe the laws and bylaws of the Constitution and determine if they were unconstitutional. The Supreme Court also heard original jurisdiction cases. Original jurisdiction cases usually dealt with high profile figures or members of the Senate or Executive Branch that had been charged with political crimes. The court sentenced the defendant of the trial based on the Senate's verdict on the charges. When hearing appealed trials, their ruling was the final binding word. The defendant and the prosecution could not extend to a higher court since the Supreme Court was the highest and they could not bring up a re-trial since Double Jeopardy was in play. Double Jeopardy was a second hearing that tried the defendant on the same charges with the same facts and hoped for a different judgment/outcome (Double Jeopardy was allowed in a few of the lower court systems). The courts could issue sanctions and penalties on nearly everything except the galactic government, utility companies and life essentials (water production, agricultural distribution, housing, etc.). They could petition the Senate to impose a tax to circumvent their limitation.
Justices, despite being able to determine the constitutional legality of a law, were not allowed to create laws or alter laws themselves. Justices of the Supreme Court were not allowed to run for the executive office if they were still legally a Justice of the Judiciary. They could not penalize or place sanctions on utility companies (water, electric, etc.) and holonet providers, nor on government operations and the galactic government. The ability to extend fines and limitations on the food and shelter industries was also prohibited, but they could tax corporations in those fields.
The Galactic Republic's influence on the galactic economy was linked to its regulatory powers, production of Republic credits, and authorization of relevant bodies.
At the heart of the galactic economy was planetary trade. Planetary trade could support a local economy, but the high levels of government spending required to upkeep an advanced society could only be funded by interplanetary exports. While some planets maintained their own shipping fleets, most relied on large freight firms.
In the last millennia of the Galactic Republic, commercial interests began to form guilds to increase their influence on relevant legislation and achieve greater efficiency. While most of these guilds, like the Trade Federation, Techno Union, and the Commerce Guild, collapsed after the Great Galactic War, a number of surviving members flocked to the Human Imperium for financial security.
The Galactic Republic Standard credit was considered the universal currency rather than having thousands of local currencies. Because of the Republic's exceptional membership, credits were accepted on all but the most remote planets. From its inception, the credit was backed by the immense wealth of the planet Muunilinst and the InterGalactic Banking Clan.
All working beings were required to pay income taxes, which were collected by the Republic Tax Collection Agency. In the later years of the Galactic Republic, a transit tax of 15% was levied to raise revenue for the government.
Society and culture
The Galactic Republic had a very diverse culture. Member worlds were able to maintain their own culture in accordance with local beliefs, customs, and traditions.
Although Humanocentrism was outlawed by the Rights of Sentience clause of the Galactic Constitution, it still very much existed throughout the life of the Galactic Republic. Human-led companies such as Czerka enslaved entire non-human races, while planets such as Taris set aside the best regions of the world for Humans, while forcing non-humans into ghettos. The majority of slaves in the galaxy were non-humans. Due to the reign of Contispex, circa 11,000 BBY, the galaxy suffered from major segregation. His pro-human reign caused a massive fissure in Republic and Human support. The Outer Rim, which was mostly alien, chaffed under his reign and grew to be resentful; while the inner-galaxy celebrated his term of office. The crusades launched by the Chancellor to wipe out the non-Human species, created a permanent divide between the Core–whom were perceived as pampered and corrupt because of their large Human population–and the Rim worlds. The conflict came to a head at two junctures; the Contispex Crusades and eleven millennia later in the Great Galactic War.
Human customs and traditions dominated much of the galactic architecture and food. Nerf steak and Senate Building architecture derived from Coruscanti and Alderaanian Human tastes. Alderaanian landscape was changed by Humans when they drove the indigenous Killik species from Alderaan and destroyed many of their conical hive structures. Coruscanti and Mandalorian Humans were responsible for the extinction of the Taung species during the Republic reign. The Corellian Humans fostered the exploration of space by designing space ships since the dawn of the Republic. They also became iconic for their liquor. A relationship built on dominance was created by the Naboo over the indigenous Gungan species. That dominance shaped the governing and naming of that system.
Human society flourished in large part to the isolationist nature of the Hutt species that controlled Hutt Space. The lack of conflict between the two governments allowed the Hutts to dominate their space and the Humans (the dominant species in the Republic) to flourish.
The Galactic Republic society was influenced by the monastic Jedi Order. Rather than being an imperialistic power that strove to annihilate any rival power or territory, they adopted the pacifistic stance of the Jedi and deferred to them to settle disputes. The Jedi garnered enough power to play a role in daily government politics and policies, therefore they had a hand in shaping the society and culture of the Galactic Republic.
The Republic federally observed two holidays, Republic Day and Remembrance. Republic Day honors the day of the Republic's founding and the Consitution's subsequent ratification, while Remembrance pays tribute to the veterans of the Republic, living and dead.
Republic territory went through several revisions throughout its 25,000 year existence. At times it spanned the entire known galaxy or it shrank to incorporate only a few of the many regions of the explored portion of the galaxy (the unexplored region on the other end of the galaxy was still dangerous). The Galactic Republic, during its pinnacle, spanned from the Core to the Outer Rim Worlds, and some Wild Space systems. The Republic had a firm grasp on all of galactic space up to the Outer Rim. Once spacers reached the Outer Rim, Republic authority had significantly less power and the systems were prone to lawlessness. Criminals and the lack of Republic security personnel bred crime and fostered limitless freedom. The Republic held very little purchase on the regions beyond the Mid Rim and their allegiance to the Republic was very thin.
Once the Republic faced reduction or destruction, they retreated Coreward to consolidate strength and security. The capital, Coruscant, had the coordinates 0,0,0 on the X,Y,Z coordinate plane, signifying its importance in all galactic matters. The Galactic Republic's preference to retreat from the rimward regions during times of conflict, as well as its small presence and maltreatment of the rims led to a secession or schism between the members of the inter-galactic government. The rim struck out independently while the Core and inner regions remained within the Republic. This tension and movement culminated the Great Galactic War.
Jedi Order relations
The Jedi Order and Galactic Republic shared a fairly smooth relationship. Relations between the two remained somewhat at arms length for the ten thousand years between 11,000 BBY and 1,000 BBY when the Order bounced from location to location—until finally settling on Coruscant—which also coincided with the monastic order's power to operate outside of the Republic's jurisdiction and wishes. Although the Jedi Order did its best to bend to the wants and needs of the Republic, oftentimes coming to its aid during wars and disasters—both natural and otherwise—it did not make a considerable effort to be under the thumb of the Republic until the Ruusan Reformations. In 1,000 BBY, the Ruusan Reformations placed the Jedi Order under the control of the Senate and Judiciary Branch, they also disbanded the majority of their militaristic licenses (armor, organized armed forces, etc).
This allowed the Senate to direct the focus of the Order to what it saw fit, most of the time. During the times when the Order did not follow the Senate's orders, the relationship grew rocky. This rocky and smooth relationship would fluctuate frequently, many times with the change of Chancellors and massive senatorial changes that saw a shift in power. The control would also ebb depending on the views of the Chancellor as well. Some Chancellors gave the Jedi more leeway, others less. Near the end of the Republic reign, corruption in the Senate and investigations forced the Order to operate independently of the Senate.
The Republic's earliest days were not peaceful ones, since, as the Republic expanded across the galaxy, it encountered many warlike species. The Republic realized the need for an army and navy to keep the peace. The Republic's military forces would serve throughout many conflicts, including the Great Hyperspace War, the various conflicts of the Old Crusader Wars, and the New Crusader Wars.
After the Battle of Ruusan, the Republic, led by Supreme Chancellor Tarsus Valorum, decommissioned much of its military, retaining a small force only for security purposes. This force would later become known as the Judicial Department. This was to display the Republic's peaceful ideals, as the Republic used Jedi Knights as "keepers of the peace."
Several trade corporations, such as the Trade Federation, the InterGalactic Banking Clan, and the Commerce Guild, kept their own security forces in order to protect their profits. Individual sectors also maintained their own security forces, such as Naboo's Royal Naboo Security Forces or CorSec from Corellia, and these were sometimes used to combat small threats. However there was no centralized command, and the members of the late-period Republic loathed change.
Behind the scenes
The article was created by I'm the Chosen One to show the history and structure of the government. The Epic of the Star Wars saga Republic differs slightly from George Lucas's canon Galactic Republic.
The system of government—the use of three branches as well as the powers of those three branches—was based heavily on the United States government and, to a lesser extent, the Galactic Republic in the Star Wars Prequel Trilogy.