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On the planet Earth, strife there is, torn their planet in half, the Separatists of Earth have. Concerned we are, of the Confederates' devotion to Count Dooku, to Earth you must go, solve this civil war that has split the people of Earth in two, you must. Dangerous, this mission will be, against nearly the entire population of Earth, you are!
—Yoda briefing Maksi Hikar on his mission to Earth
The Earth Civil War (known as the Confederate War of Independence by the Confederate States of Earth) was a war between pro-Separatist and pro-Republic factions of Earth, the Separatist side was led by President Jane Zarkan and the Confederate States of Earth, whilst the Republic side was led by President Richard Williams and the Union of Earth States.
The war began in early 21 BBY when the Union invaded the Confederate-allied Republic of Valand due to the Confederate-Valand Alliance, the first action of the war was the Fort Frontier Massacre, in which Union forces massacred 72 men, women, and children who were hostile to the Union's invasion, the massacre was described as "The First Bloodshed of the War of Western Independence", within two days of the massacre advance forces of the C. S. Army's Army of the Border and the local militia engaged the Union near the town, though they were overwhelmed, and fought a delaying action as they retreated westwards, towards the the army's main body.
They were pursued eastwards by the Union Army, the two forces met in the first big battle of the war, the (First) Battle of Valley City, on the plains to the east of Valley City, the capital of Valand. The Confederate forces were victorious, who then pursued the retreating Union forces eastwards, defeating the Union's attempt at a stand near the Union border town of Hilltown in the First Battle of Hilltown, the Confederates held the town for a fortnight, before relinquishing control of the town in the Second Battle of Hilltown, and retreating back into Valand's territory.
Initially, the civil war was used as a proxy war by the Galactic Republic against the CIS and the C.S.E, but Confederate successes meant that the Republic Senate didn't see the results it wanted, meaning they decided to invade Earth to support the vastly outnumbered pro-Republic Union forces.
A fortnight after Valley City, the Republic and Union forces launched an attack on the Confederacy, resulting in the anger of many Union citizens, and a spate of secessions from the Union, the result of the Republic-led attack was that many Union states were driven away from the Union to the Confederacy, significantly weakening the Union, and strengthening the Confederacy, as a result the Republic lost the respect of the Union.
Following the Confederate victory there was an uneasy peace for a further year and a half, the Confederacy deployed the Army of Occupation to the Union, which was an army of reservists and volunteers which was intended to maintain forces with Union territory in order to ensure the Union did not attempt to restart the civil war.
The very last battle of the war was "Battle of the Senate building", when rogue members of the Confederacy, former members of the New Earth Republic who had served the Confederacy, betrayed the Confederacy, attempted to take control of the Union Senate building, they took Union senators as hostage and attempted to raise their banner over the Senate building, declaring that the Union was to be transformed into the Second New Earth Republic. Both desiring to not see the horrors of the NER return, the Confederate and Union soldiers within the building joined forces to defeat the SNER, the SNER was defeated and the Treaty of Williamstown was able to be successfully signed.
The Galactic Empire invaded in 18 BBY, beginning the Third Battle of Earth, the Confederacy and the Union were forced to ally, resulting in the short-lived Confederate-Union Alliance of 18 BBY, the alliance was ended mere weeks after being signed, following the fall of the Union of Earth States to the Empire, and transformation into the Earth Empire puppet state. Later, pro-Confederate and pro-Union resistance forces would ally during the Liberation of Earth, which would result in the Confederate-Union Alliance of 4 ABY.
Even as late as 40 ABY the war was a very tense area in Earth's politics, the Confederates viewed the war as a war of oppression and tyranny by the Union, a war to enforce a tyrannical dictatorship on the Confederacy, something which made many Confederates very bitter towards the Union, President of the Confederacy Jane Zarkan II briefly mentioned the war in an argument with Union President Adam Williams over the Union's refusal to support the Confederate States of Earth's rebellion against the Galactic Alliance.
Damn the warmongers in our Senate! Their invasion was illegal, the Confederacy is a free and independent sovereign nation, and she has the right to exist! I for one would be happy to fight my own government to defend her! She is a beacon of hope, hope that one day true freedom will be restored and our government will be cleansed of corruption, our Confederate brothers went and made their own nation to escape from greed and corruption in our Senate, as well as our unfair taxation, and I fully support their right to!
—A Union citizen being interviewed on his opinion of the Republic-Union invasion of the Confederacy