The Bothan War, also known as the Muun-Bothan War, was a major galactic conflict between the major interplanetary governments. One side of the war featured the Core Systems Alliance and the Bespin Treaty Organization and the other side included the Bothan League and Muun Federation.
When the CSA formed an alliance with the Bespin Treaty Organization, the Bothans and Muuns saw an opportunity to enter a profitable war. There talk of conflict was based on accusations that the Core Systems Alliance was trying to dominate the Galaxy. They claimed the CSA would use the alliance to manipulate the BTA and that their organizations would soon be targets of a campaign of aggression. As a result, both sides began to build up their military forces. The President of the Core, Jammi Crane learned of this militarization and ordered a preemptive strike, believing that the Muuns and Bothans were the true aggressors. The target of this attack would be Gamorr, due to an intelligence tip by informants on Gamorr. However, these informants were actually Bothan agents who supplied an incomplete report, which lead to an ill-fated CSA attack. Bothan forces then launched a counterattack, invading the CSA world Recann.
The Sith Lords
In the northern sector of the galaxy, the Muun Federation prepared an attack on Core Space, which would open up a second front to the war. Their militarization included the development of the San Hill-class cruiser and the hiring of many mercenaries. Two of these fighters were Sith lords: Darth Naarin and his apprentice Darth Torrent. Despite their pledge of loyalty, these two Sith actually developed a plan to stage a military coup and rule the Federation themselves. To do so, they would need to earn the respect of the Muun Military, so they decided to take the cruiser they were given and join the upcoming attack on the Core.
While the battle in which Narin fought in at Pantolomin was a loss for the Muuns, he did succeed in gaining respect in the eyes of the military. The new hero was given command of his own starfleet, bringing him closer to his takeover of the Federation. Sensing the dark side in the CSA's enemies, Grandmaster Rus Gon-Dorff decided to bring the Jedi Order into the war on the side of the Core and Bespin Treaty Association. However, while most Jedi agreed to join the war, some opposed Master Gon-Dorffs actions and would fight on the side of the CSA's enemies. These rogue Jedi included the Gamorrean Rii Tuurk and the Trandoshan Koox, among others.
Turning the tide
At this stage in the war, the CSA was planning an assault on the Bothan stronghold of Kamino. A number of Jedi would participate in the attack, serving as warriors and battlefield advisors. The attack was a success, as CSA forces took the world, marking their first victory on the Bothan front.
The Core military would go on to retake Recann and also captured Hypori.
The Mandalorian front
As Muun forces fought a series of minor skirmishes against the CSA fleet, Darth Naarin took his forces and launched an attack on the Mandalorians, who had just announced their alliance with the Core Systems Alliance. The attack came without the permission of the Muun government, but after the successful Battle of Bandomeer, Muun leaders supported the invasion and pledged ships and soldiers to the Sith. The over-matched Mandalorians decided the best strategy was to move the majority of their troops to their capital Mandalore, conceding the majority of their systems to the Muuns.
When the Muun attack of Mandalore finally occurred, the Mandalorians were ready. Aided by a small number of Jedi Advisors, the Mandalorians fought the Muun/Sith forces bravely. No side was clearly winning and the death toll was high. While observing the battle from space, Darth Naarin decided to personally kill the Mandalore, forcing his enemies to fight without a leader and remove a potentially powerful enemy. However, the duel did not go as the Sith lord had hoped and he was killed from a blaster shot. With Darth Torrent now in control of the battle, he eventually called for a retreat for if more casualties were taken, it would create obstacles for the execution of their greater goal: control of the Muun Federation. Using this logic, he called for a retreat and took the forces from the battle to a system close to Muunilist, along with the rest of the Muun garrisons in Mandalorian space.
The struggle for Muunilist
Prior to the Battle of Mandalore, a CSA task force lead by Admiral Liak Piett V launched an assault on Muun Federation space. The first battle in this assault took place on Mygeeto. The result was a win for the Core, due the majority of the defense defecting to Sith forces. After a peaceful take over of Yaga Minor, Piett looked towards Kalee.
Meanwhile, on Reeibo, Darth Torrent carefully planned his next move. Despite all his plotting and careful calculations, one event completely through off the Sith plans. This was a special recall election which had removed Muun president Kan Xe from office. This was a major setback because the new president was Wit Zorit and not Sahg Trifton, the planned Sith puppet. It was apparent that Torrent's efforts of creating distrust towards the Xe administration had backfired, as the Muun people were now content with their leader. Zorit's main campaign focus was to create an immediate peace settlement for all parties. Trifton, who received the second highest number of votes, likely lost because of his plans to continue fighting the war.
The battle of Muunilist
To further complicate matters, Xe was secretly building up a force of loyal units and prepared to launch an uprising. When this happened, the Battle of Muunilist began. Both sides took heavy casualties, as the rebels won a few key battles. However, no side was clearly winning. When Darth Torrent learned of this, he believed this would be the key to reviving his plans. The distracted forces would be no match for his personal forces. The stakes were even higher because the winner of this battle would have essential control of the entire Muun Federation, due to the thinned nature of the Federation military. In the end, Zorit would emerge victorious due to intervention on the part of the Core Systems Alliance. Feeling that Zorit would likely the most friendly towards the CSA and that the other two factions had the potential to be grave threats, Admiral Piett arrived in the system and organized a truce. The combined force defeated its enemies and as a result, President Zorit announced that the Muun Federation would immediately exit the war. An armistice signed soon after would confirm this. Unfortunately for the CSA and it's allies, Lord Torrent was able to escape. With the Muun Federation out of the way, the allied forces were able to turn their full attention towards the Bothan League.
Showdown in Bothan Space
By the time the Muuns had been defeated, the CSA had two attack forces in Bothan League Space. One task force was located on Kamino and the other was on Hypori. Because of a shortage of supplies and troops, these units had been mostly inactive for the majority of 1404 ABY. But by 1405, with the Muun Federation out of the picture, the Core was able to fully focus its energy on defeating the Bothans and provide its attack forces with much needed supplies and reinforcements.
After General Fin moved his army from Hypori to Roon and captured the planet, many in the galaxy felt the end of the war was in sight and that surrender was in the best interest of the League. But after morale boosting victories at Rishi and Kothlis, Chancellor Fey'la felt a successful defense of his alliance was possible.
The war's end
It was generally accepted that the Core Systems Alliance took on the majority of the war's workload. However, their allies broke the back of the Bothan League. While the efforts of the Bespin Treaty Association, Mandalorians, Wookiees and Mon Calamari were beneficial, their most significant act came in the Battle of Falleen. With the majority of Bothan forces concentrated in the greater Bothawui area, a surprise attack on Falleen by a Bespin Treaty Association fleet crippled Bothan efforts on the galactic western front. This major defeat for the Bothan League destroyed most of the momentum they had mustered. When it seemed morale could not sink to a lower level, CSA forces captured Kothlis. After this occurred, pressure again was put on the Bothan government to surrender. But Chancellor Fey'la again stubbornly refused, stating that Bothawui itself would not go down without a fight.
If a fight was to occur, Fey'la himself would not be there to witness it, retreating to Naboo for safety. Ironically, the place were the chancellor went for increased safety was actually the place where he met his death. A Gungan assassin team, secretly aided by Naboo's planetary government, killed the Chancellor in the streets of Theed.
The new Chancellor, Devw Korska, was just as stubborn as Fey'la. However, his will was weaker than that of his predecessor and he showed signs that he may cave to the pressure. This finally occurred when a Mon Calamari task force destroyed a Bothan fleet over Gamorr. An armistice was signed over Kothlis, which ended the war.
The Treaty of Kooriva officially ended the war. The most significant aspect of the treaty was the creation of the Universal Republic, marking a new attempt to unify the galaxy. This new Republic loosely organized an alliance between the galactic powers which signed the treaty and planned on incorporating the other unions in the galaxy, in addition to those in the surrounding galaxies (hence the 'Universal' Republic).
The Bothan War itself showed the need for unity in the galaxy. It displayed the fact that a series of large, competing factions would eventually battle for supremacy. The new Republic, while not taking any drastic unification efforts, began a new path in the right direction. The war also impacted both the Jedi and Sith. The Jedi proved it could adapt with the times but as a result, also took on its old role, officially becoming the guardians of peace and justice in the Universal Republic. The Sith rose from the shadows and while they were again cast back into them, they remained a potent force.