The Alliance of Free Worlds, simply called the Alliance, was a government established in 251 ABY by the Galactic Alliance Remnant faction and New Jedi Order of the Galactic Federation Triumvirate, when the Empire-in-exile faction split off and became part of the Dark Empire of the One Sith. The Alliance fought the Sith during the Triumvirate Civil War. Led by a Chief of State and the Grand Master of the Jedi, the Alliance waged a defensive war against the Empire, since the majority of the Triumvirate Military was Imperial and went to their side.
In 251 ABY, the Chief of State of the Galactic Federation Triumvirate and one of the Triumvirs, Johan Fel, became obsessed with the Galactic Empire after reading about it in history texts. He thought the Empire should rule the galaxy rather than be a semi-autonomous state of the Triumvirate, and attempted a coup against the government. It failed because of the Triumvirate Intelligence finding out about the plans for it, and Fel fled to the Unknown Regions. There he met with the One Sith Order, where he was crowned Emperor of the Dark Empire. He called on the support of the Empire-in-exile, and much of the Triumvirate Military joined him. The Triumvirate was reorganized into the Alliance as the Triumvirate Civil War began.
Fight for survival
As the Dark Empire's forces began attacking, the Alliance was still in the process of reform, and many military units were not even aware of the transition. As a result, Imperial fleets quickly captured many sectors within the Outer Rim Territories in the first several months, catching the military off guard and in total disarray. By the time the Alliance military was able to respond, the plans originally drafted were unable to be implemented as too much territory was lost to the Imperial advance. Rather than attack the Dark Empire's territory, the Alliance was forced into a defensive war early on. The Jedi Knights helped spear the defensive, managing to bring the Imperial offensive to a halt in some regions.
Government and politics
The Alliance was led by a Chief of State, and the Senate, much like the Triumvirate. However, unlike the preceding government, it did not have three Triumvirs, as the Imperials split off. As the war progressed, the military got more control of the government due to the fact that it was getting worse for them. As more and more worlds were captured by the Dark Empire or became neutral, the Senate grew smaller and had less authority.
Much of the Triumvirate military joined the Empire, so the Alliance's military forces were much smaller and their resources limited. There were two primary branches, the Alliance Army and the Alliance Navy. Along with them were two smaller ones, the Alliance Special Forces, elite troops, and the Alliance Support Services, logistical units. Due to limited resources, training for new recruits was noticeably worse than that for their counterparts of the Imperial Army and Navy. A large recruitment drive began but was halted with the loss of Coruscant and several other key worlds.